The phrase "psychotropic drugs" is a technical term for psychiatric medicines that alter chemical levels in the brain which impact mood and behavior.
A yearlong ABC News investigation has been looking at the overuse of these medicines in America's foster children.
Antipsychotics, antidepressants, ADHD drugs, anti-anxiety medications and mood stabilizers are some of the more commonly used psychotropic drugs in this country.
While doctors aren't exactly sure how antipsychotics work, most experts believe antipsychotics block specific dopamine receptors in the brain, which are thought to be overactive in patients with symptoms of psychoses, such as ha
2 months ago
Public Relations and Personal Selling
Blythe (2009, 193) described personal selling as the interactive process whereby a buyer and a seller negotiate an exchange process, the process usually being carried out in a face-to-face encounter between the parties. The significant importance of personal selling is that it offers the company to have two way communications with the potential buyer(s) of the company's service(s). However, to ensure that advantages of personal selling are fully maximized, the company's representative would have to ensure that the message being delivered is tailored to the subject that is of significant importance or interest to the would-be customer. Drucker (1973, 56) stated that "the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous". Therefore, the responsibility rests on the company and its representatives to identify what exactly the needs of customers are so that such needs can be adequately addressed and catered for.
It suffices to say that personal selling is a very effective tool to market the company's services but what is more effective is the quality or the perceive quality ,unmatched benefits of the service being rendered to the business customer. Business customers want to know what problem the service can help solve and how will the service help them serve their customers better than the competitors. Blythe (2009, 195) further suggested that "the emphasis in selling practice is not on telling prospects about the products, but on asking questions about the prospects needs. Persuasive talks are not necessary if appropriate questions are asked: questions not only help in finding customers' needs, they also help to lead the discussion in a particular direction".
This is a deliberate, planned and sustained effort by the company in order to establish and maintain an understanding between an organization and any group which the company needs to communicate. In the entire life span of a company, there is constantly a need to always communicate with the public in one way or the other. The company may find it difficult to accomplish its organizational goal if it fails to identify who the company's publics are and equally identify the mechanism and strategy of communication. The possible 'publics' of a business may include employees, trade unions, the general public, customers, media, government, pressure groups etc. The essence of public relations is to influence the 'publics' opinions about the company. And this can be achieved by taking steps to adequately reinforce positive public opinions about the company and on the other hand, the company has to make copious effort to neutralize the public opinions that are quite unfavorable. For a company to ensure that favorable healthcare advertising jobs salary opinions are reinforced and unfavorable ones are counteracted, it is has to endeavor to make abundant information available to its 'publics'. The means to therefore make ample information available can be through the six points listed below (Dann & Dann 2011, 203.)
New Long-Term Data on VIVITROL® Showed Sustained Efficacy and Safety over 18 Months of Treatment
plc (NASDAQ: ALKS) today presented positive results from a long-term
study of VIVITROL
2 months ago
Medicine :: Tinnitus: The Start of Constant Ear Noise
In searching for the cause of tinnitus, remember there is seldom a single cause for any health problem. It is important to consider cofactors, direct and indirect causative agents and various life situations that fit together in a person's life Prosthodontist is a dentist with special skills like pieces of a puzzle. Since tinnitus is the topic of this discussion, each potential cause of tinnitus - by itself - might not be sufficient to bring about this problem.
However, when evaluated as a whole, a more complex and multi-layered interplay of small and large causes for a case of tinnitus becomes apparent.
Several possible causes can combine and interact; together they can start a complex and unique health problem, like tinnitus, that could not be initiated by any one of them alone. Common medical causes of tinnitus
There are typically two basic medical explanations for the cause of tinnitus. First, tinnitus can occur as an end result of another health problem like hearing loss or high blood pressure, so it can be merely a sign of a preexisting problem that is actually more serious. The other is that tinnitus can often be a symptom of almost any ear disorder, including: For example, any problem from an ear infection, to Meniere's disease, or a perforated ear drum to a sinus infection, or a ear canal blocked by ear wax to a tumor of the middle ear, or cervical spine osteoarthritis to severe weight loss due to excessive dieting, or chemical damage to ear (aspirin, caffeine, alcohol, antibiotics, barbiturates, quinine, NSAIDS (motrin, naproxen, Relafen), Lipitor, Lasix and other "loop" diuretics, etc.). Tinnitus is a potential side effect with 200+ prescription and nonprescription drugs. In this type of tinnitus, it usually disappears when the underlying chemicals or drugs are reduced or stopped.
In addition, less common causes of tinnitus can arise as a consequence specialist dentist prosthodontist to other disorders: anemia, heart and blood vessel disorders (hypertension, arteriosclerosis), tumor of the auditory nerve, or low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism). For sensitive individuals, whose number might be actually quiet high, the mercury found in common amalgam dental fillings can be the cause of chronic tinnitus. Noises in the ear could also be the signal of being overwhelmed with stress and work.
Exercise can also be a cause of tinnitus by creating micro-injury to the ear mechanism, resulting in abnormal auditory function. The New England Journal of Medicine in February 1991 stated that a common and insidious cause of tinnitus was the repetitive, powerful and sudden jarring force of contact sports and high-impact exercise.
As part of the natural aging process, deterioration of the cochlea and related reduced hearing ability due to old age (presbycusis) can also be a cause of tinnitus. And lastly, although not entirely clear to medical researchers, but explained on the Tinnitus Treatment Institute website, the ongoing daily stresses associated with the activities of daily living can start and worsen tinnitus.
The Tinnitus Treatment Institute has long recommended that anyone suffering from tinnitus should undergo active Alternative Medicine treatment following the therapy guidelines suggested throughout its website.
The Tinnitus Treatment Institute specializes in using safe and effective Alternative Medicine therapies to assist healing and repair related to those who suffer from constant ear noises. For additional information go to http://www-tinnitus-treatment-institute.com
3 months ago
Cleft surgery boosts economy, gives developing nations reason to smile-charity
DAKAR, March 24 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Born in Ghana
with a cleft lip and palate, baby Kodjo was on the brink of
being drowned in a river by his family in a religious sacrifice
until a passing villager intervened.
The baby, who had been unable to feed properly due to the
birth defect and was considered cursed because of it, was sent
to local cleft surgeon Solomon Obiri-Yeboah, who repaired the
split in Kodjo's lip and mouth.
Babies born with cleft lip or palate in West Africa often go
untreated due to a lack of trained surgeons and facilities, and
the cost of the surgery, and many are ostracised by their
3 months ago
Research and Markets: Global Dental Implants Market 2015-2019: Key Vendors are 3M, Biomet 3i, Dentsply, Nobel Biocare, Straumann and Zimmer Holdings
DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/8rj7kf/global_dental)
has announced the addition of the "Global
Dental Implants Market 2015-2019" report to their offering.
One of the major trends in this market is the introduction of CAD/CAM
technology, which enables the production of accurate dental prostheses.
Thus, the developments and advances in dental health will have a strong
For more information visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/8rj7kf/global_dental
4 months ago
French kissing ups risk of oral HPV infection
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Oral sex and open-mouthed "French" kissing increase the risk of acquiring oral infections of human papillomavirus, or HPV, a study shows.
"Performing oral sex is not without risks," Dr. Maura L. Gillison told Reuters Health.
It is associated with gonorrheal pharyngitis - a sexually transmitted infection of the tonsils and back of the throat that immediately causes symptoms, she noted, and now is associated with mouth HPV infections that are silent "yet may lead to oral cancer 10 to 20 years later."
Gillison from The Ohio State University, Columbus, and colleagues explored whether http://www.smileusa.com/dental-implants/ sexual behaviors were associated with the odds of oral HPV infection in 332 adults and in 210 college-aged men. They found that 4.8 percent of the adults and 2.9 percent of college-aged men had oral HPV infection.
Among adults, the odds of oral HPV infection were significantly elevated among current tobacco smokers and among individuals who reported having either more than 10 oral or more than 25 vaginal sex partners during their lifetime.
Similar risk factors applied to the college-aged men. For them, having at least six recent oral sex or open-mouthed kissing partners were independently associated with increased odds of developing oral HPV infection.
For the 28 percent of college-aged men who reported never having performed oral sex, having at least 10 lifetime or at least five recent open-mouthed kissing partners was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing oral HPV infection.
"Our data suggest that oral HPV infections that could predispose to cancer may be transmitted by very common behaviors such as open-mouth or 'French' kissing," Gillison concluded.
Given that the HPV vaccine does not have any therapeutic value against pre-existing HPV infections, "this may be relevant http://www.smileusa.com/dental-implants/ to the timing of administration of vaccination," Gillison said.
Although the CDC recommends that the vaccine be administered between the ages of 9 and 12 ideally, in practice, she noted, it is often administered to girls between the age of 14 and 16. Oral exposure to HPV may have occurred prior to that age.
SOURCE: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, May 1, 2009.